Teaching of Grammar Categories: An Approach According to Activity Theory
Acquisition of grammar and methods for teaching of grammar is a topic of discussion within educational system in many countries. Normally, pupils at primary and secondary school show strong difficulties in independent writing production, which depends, among other things, on general knowledge of basics of grammar. No original strategies or innovation methods are proposed in traditional education. The chapter represents an effort to show a new pedagogical approach to teaching initial grammar categories. The aim of the study was to obtain qualitative pedagogical data during the work with basic grammar categories through prior acquisition of certain skills of orientation and reflective comprehension of differences between essential characteristics of each type of word (basic grammar category). Initial categories are also understood as basic and general grammar categories. The study was carried out with Mexican regular pupils of second grade of primary school. Specific symbolic orientation was created to facilitate identification of essential features of basic grammar categories. According to the results of the study, all pupils have shown positive acquisition of intellectual actions for comparison and individual production of basic grammar categories. The authors discuss effectiveness of positive results, which were obtained by application of new pedagogical experience. Our proposal is based on strategies of guided orientation according to cultural historical psychology and activity theory. The results have shown positive effects of the program for acquisition of initial grammar concepts by Mexican pupils. Orientation base of actions and usage of external means for orientation (special cards) were main instrument, which allowed to achieve effectiveness in reflective knowledge of pupils and in grammar awareness. The main principles of guided and joint activity including teacher and pupils in classroom were applied with success for formation of general grammar concepts. Formative experiment applied to introductive teaching of grammar categories proved to be useful method in educational psychology. Orientation used in teaching should take into account types, levels and essential contents feature of concepts of grammar: general grammar categories.
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