Recent Production Economy Research
Mulberry Production Economy in District of Adiyaman
The mulberry, which is cultivated generally in mild and subtropical regions, is cultivated in our country extensively. However, this potential cannot be assessed enough. Cultivation of mulberry has started to earn importance in Adıyaman in recent years. Mulberry has a great market potential thanks to its nutritive features of processed products and the fresh consumption of it. Dozens of products such as molasses, jams, fruit pulp, mulberry butter, dried mulberry, fruit ice cream, walnut sausage, vinegar, fruit juice concentrate, alcohol are made from its fruit. In this study, the general economic features of mulberry cultivation in Adıyaman is tried to be put forth. For this purpose, the statistics that are published by Turkish Statistical Institute and other data sources have been taken as references. In the study, the initial evaluation subjects were carried out about the cultivation areas, the number of the trees, and the amount of production and the production amount according to districts in Turkey. After that, the data were examined so as to put forth the economical features of mulberry cultivation in Adıyaman.
According to TSI data of the year 2005, the area of collective fruits produced as a commercial enterprise in the line of industry demands of mulberry is 12000 decare area and the number of products is 55000 tons from 2120000 efficient trees. In 2010, the figures raised above 75000 tons and it was 69334 tons in 2015. Average yield per tree varies from 25 to 30 kg within the examined period. Mulberry production in Adıyaman is not very common; however, the fruit is presented to the market as fresh for a short time and in order to apprise the producers redundant. Producers didn’t use to harvest the fruit as it was thought to be worthless in previous years. But today, it has become one of the most important income sources. The mulberry production area in Adıyaman has increased twenty times in the last decade. It is remarkable to see that the increase in the production areas in last few years. Thanks to local people’s realizing the support of the mulberry for their economies and establishing new production areas have a great effect on this increase. Total tree number and a good bearer numbers have been doubled. While Adıyaman’s mulberry production was 661 tons in 2005, it reached 1629 tons in 2015. The production increased about 2.5 times within this period. Average yield per tree varies from 25 to 30 kg. When the potential that Adıyaman has in mulberry production is appraised, it will contribute local economy in coming years. Mulberry will be an important fruit for the development of the region as it creates added value and employment increase.
Socio-economic Assessment of Ginger Production in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Order Scitamineae and the family Zingiberaceae. It is used for both medicinal and culinary purposes. it is a root crop and a typical herb extensively grown across the world for its pungent aromatic underground stem and rhizome which make it an important export commodity in the world trade. Ginger’s origin is not well established though it is generally thought to be native of Asia, where it was first cultivated. It was also cultivated in tropical regions of America. Ginger was introduced to Europe by Arab traders from India the first century AD. Ginger was introduced to Nigeria in 1927.The study was carried out to examine the socio economics of ginger production in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The objectives of this study are to; identify the socio economic characteristic of ginger production, assess the extent of profitability of ginger production in the study area, and to determine the socio economic factors affecting the production of ginger. The data were obtained primarily by administering questionnaires to 60 farmers that were purposively selected from four wards, namely: Daddu, Samban, Nok, and sab-zuro. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis gross margin and productivity. The result of the multiple regression shows that among 8 variables used in the analysis, only 3 variables significantly influenced ginger production education, credit, and farm size. The gross margin was calculated to be ₦177,756.69 and a return to naira of ₦1.21 was realized. The major constraints militating against ginger production in the study area are inadequate input, poor transportation facilities, high cost of labour and inadequate credit. It is recommended that extension services are needed in the study area to educate the farmer on the use of agro chemicals, input and agro practices toward increase in production and there is need for farmer to form cooperatives groups to help them provide credit to their member in good time and substantial amount.
Economic Efficiency Analysis of Pineapple Production in Edo State, Nigeria: A Stochastic Frontier Production Approach
This study analyses farmers’ overall efficiency in pineapple production in Edo State, Nigeria. Data were collected through well structured questionnaire administered on 175 pineapple farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique and analyzed using descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production and cost function models. Result revealed that while farm size and labour significantly influenced production efficiency, the cost of farm, suckers and output were significant in influencing cost efficiency. Average technical, allocative and economic efficiencies of the farmers were 0.70, 0.68 and 0.64 respectively indicating ample opportunity for farmers to increase their productivity. The return to scale (RTS) for the production function revealed that the farmers operated in the rational zone (stage II) of the production surface having an RTS of 0.52. The analysis further indicated that the presence of technical and allocative inefficiencies had effect on pineapple production as depicted by the significant estimated gamma coefficient of each model and the predicted technical and allocative efficiencies within the farmers. The study recommends the need to increase output through more intensive use of land, availability of high yielding pineapple varieties and the effective and efficient utilization of labour and fertilizer inputs. It also recommends that farmers be encouraged to join cooperatives and extension services should intensify their efforts in training and mobilizing farmers for improved pineapple production. An easier access to credit from formal sources, notably micro-credit institutions and farmers’ education are essential to improve productivity and profitability of pineapple production in Nigeria. Policies that focus on ways of attracting and encouraging the youths who are agile and stronger to embark on pineapple production should be pursued such as the setting up of fruit processing factories or industries in the rural areas.
INTRODUCE A NEW MACRO ECONOMETRIC MODEL FOR IRAN AS AN OIL COUNTRY
In this paper a macro econometric model is introduced for Iran. Iran is an oil dependent country with oil income playing significant role in the economy. In this paper we want to survey the effects of world oil prices and oil quantity production on our economy.
For this aim, a Macro econometric model is introduced which contains 21 equations dividing the economy into four sectors – production, government, monetary and foreign sectors. Results of these equations estimation reveal that Iran’s economy is really dependent on oil income and government should try to decrease dependence on oil income.
DYNAMICS OF HUMAN CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA
The study examined the dynamic relationship between human capital formation (education and health) and economic growth in Nigeria. It investigated the mechanics of human capital formation in Nigeria from 1970 to 2014 using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The impulse response function results indicated that school enrolment and government expenditure on education reduces labour force in the short-run. However, government expenditure on health and economic growth reflexed increased labour in the study. The variance decomposition of labour and school enrolment accounted for economic growth in Nigeria. Government expenditure on education and health in the short run periods were seen as present sacrifice an economy makes for future economic growth as they positively affected economic output levels only in the long run. The granger causality result showed that human capital formation (ENROL, GEE, and GEH) granger cause labour force, but these nexus did not translate to economic growth in the study. Hence, further investment in human capital formation (precisely on equipping the youths with requisite skills) in the production process in the Nigerian economy to boost economic growth.
THE KEY DRIVERS OF THE EXCHANGE RATE DEPRECIATION IN GHANA
The main purpose of this study is to determine the key variables that influence the frequent exchange rate depreciation in Ghana. The study uses time series data for all the variables for the period of 1980 to 2015. The data for the study period is processed by taking natural logarithm of all the variables. The study employs the Backward Elimination and Stepwise Regression method. The findings of the study suggest that agricultural output, industrial output, services output and exports have been the variables which have significantly affected the exchange rate of the Ghana Cedi against the dollar during the years under review. The results of the study suggest that to ensure a stable Ghana Cedi, policies should be directed to grow the Ghanaian economy from an import-driven one to an export driven economy through massive investment in its key sectors of the economy. This will bring more foreign exchange earnings into the Ghanaian market.