Prevalence of Antibiotics Resistant Salmonella in the Abidjan North Wastewater in 2012 and Potential Health Risks to the Population

Salmonella cause salmonellosis, a disease which most common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to highlight the health risks linked to Salmonella for the population through the study of wastewater in the Indénié wastewater discharge adjacent to major effluents in the Gourou Basin.

Materials and Methods: From June to August 2012, wastewater samples were collected from two selected reservoir adjacent to the Gourou Basin collectors at the crossroads of Indénié in Abidjan. About 500 mL of collected wastewater was used to search for the bacteria of the genus Salmonella according to the standard NF EN ISO 6579. The identification was made using the API 20E gallery and confirmed by MADITOFF-MS. Bacteria strains serotyping was performed and the Kirby Baeur disc diffusion method was used for the antibiotic and susceptibility study.

Results and Discussion: A total of 112 samples were collected and were used to isolate 18 strains of Salmonella. Serotyping showed 8 different serotypes with a predominance of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Poeseldorf. The prevalence of Salmonella resistant to antibiotics in this study was 4.46%. About 27.80% of antibiotic resistant Salmonella, were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Salmonella strains were all sensitive (100%) to 3rd generation cephalosporins (C3G), 16.67% of resistant strains showed cross-resistance to quinolones. In this study, it was demonstrated the biological risks involved by the presence of Salmonella in the wastewater. The prevalence rate and the serotype highlighted were different from that of similar study conducted in Africa.

Conclusion: The wastewater contamination by Salmonella may constitute a risk of diffusion of antibiotic resistant Salmonella in the population. The Gourou Basin that had been studied conveys wastewater contaminated with Salmonella resistant to antibiotics. The outcome of our findings highlighted a significant risk of morbidity for people linked to the risk of Salmonella infections but also the possibility of therapeutic failure.

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