News Update on Raw Starch Research: Aug – 2019

The Raw Starch Binding Domain of Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans Strain 251

The E-domain of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) (EC two.4.1.19) from Bacillus circulans strain 251 could be a reputed raw starch binding domain. Analysis of the malt sugar-dependent CGTase crystal structure disclosed that every accelerator molecule contained 3 maltose molecules, located at contact points between supermolecule molecules. 2 of those maltoses were guaranteed to specific sites within the E-domain, the third malt sugar was sure at the C-domain. [1]

Native or Raw Starch Digestion:  A Key Step in Energy Efficient Biorefining of Grain

Improved molecular activity and depolymerization of grain starch to aldohexose are key to reducing energy use within the bioconversion of glucose to chemicals, ingredients, and fuels. In fuel plant product production, these biorefining steps use 10−20% of the energy content of the fuel plant product. the requirement to attenuate energy use and to lift cyber web yield of energy is met by exchange high-temperature, liquid-phase, accelerator digestion with cold, solid-phase, accelerator digestion. conjointly referred to as cold chemical reaction, the approach could be a step toward a “green” technique for the assembly of fuel plant product. There has been substantial previous and exaggerated recent interest during this approach that’s given in this initial review of the topic. [2]

Recent Advances in Microbial Raw Starch Degrading Enzymes

Raw starch degrading enzymes (RSDE) ask enzymes which will directly degrade raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. These promising enzymes will considerably cut back energy and modify the method in starch business. RSDE square measure omnipresent and created by plants, animals, and microorganisms. However, microorganism sources square measure the foremost most popular one for large-scale production. throughout the past few decades, RSDE are studied extensively. This paper reviews the recent development within the production, purification, properties, and application of microorganism RSDE. this is often the primary review on microorganism RSDE so far. [3]

Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases

Bacillus licheniformis 9945a α-amylase is thought as a potent catalyst for raw starch reaction. during this paper, a mixed mode Nuvia cPrime™ rosin is examined with the aim to enhance the downstream process of raw starch digesting amylases and exploit the hydrophobic patches on their surface. This rosin combines hydrophobic interactions with ion exchange teams and intrinsically the presence of salt facilitates hydrophobic interactions whereas the ion-exchange groups alter correct property. α-Amylase was created victimisation associate degree optimized fed-batch approach during a outlined media and vital overexpression of one.2 g L−1 was achieved. [4]

Effect of Bacillus subtilis TLO3 Amylase Pre-treatment on Ethanol Production from Raw Starches

Bioethanol is presently the foremost wide used liquid biofuel within the world. Starch wealthy crops occupy the primary place as biomass for bioethanol production. Amylases (EC three.2.1.1) ar enzymes that hydrolyses starch into sugar units, and pre-treating starch with chemical process microorganism or directly by enzyme might need a positive impact on possible sugars concentrations and ultimately lead to magnified fermentation alcohol yields.

In this study, Associate in Nursing enzyme producer strain Bacilli TLO3 new isolated from rhizospheric soil was used for enzyme production; when work the simplest combination of physico-chemical parameters. The crude catalyst was used for the pre-treatment of raw corn and wheat starches. directly later, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was inoculated into the saccharified starch solutions for fermentation. Measures were in serious trouble total reducing sugars and fermentation alcohol production right along the fermentation method. [5]


[1] Penninga, D., van der Veen, B.A., Knegtel, R.M., van Hijum, S.A., Rozeboom, H.J., Kalk, K.H., Dijkstra, B.W. and Dijkhuizen, L., 1996. The raw starch binding domain of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(51), pp.32777-32784. (Web Link)

[2] Robertson, G.H., Wong, D.W., Lee, C.C., Wagschal, K., Smith, M.R. and Orts, W.J., 2006. Native or raw starch digestion: a key step in energy efficient biorefining of grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(2), pp.353-365. (Web Link)

[3] Sun, H., Zhao, P., Ge, X., Xia, Y., Hao, Z., Liu, J. and Peng, M., 2010. Recent advances in microbial raw starch degrading enzymes. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 160(4), pp.988-1003. (Web Link)

[4] Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases
Nikola Lončar, Marinela Šokarda Slavić, Zoran Vujčić & Nataša Božić
Scientific Reports volume 5, Article number: 15772 (2015) (Web Link)

[5] Choubane, S. and Amar Cheba, B. (2017) “Effect of Bacillus subtilis TLO3 Amylase Pre-treatment on Ethanol Production from Raw Starches”, Biotechnology Journal International, 19(3), pp. 1-9. doi: 10.9734/BJI/2017/35030. (Web Link)


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