Immunity in Medically Important Parasitic Infections: An Overview

The rule is immunity. It’s frequently unfinished, takes a long time to develop, and then fades away rapidly. The term “immunity” refers to the ability to resist infection. Human life is a battleground in which we are surrounded on all sides by bacteria, viruses, fungus, and parasites, as if we were troops. Our bodies are equipped with an immune system as a defence mechanism. Infections with parasitic worms, such as intestinal worms, are frequently accompanied by blood eosinophilia, which is caused by an inflammatory mechanism. Intestinal infections with Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuristrichiura, Wuchereria bancroft, Brugiamalayi, loaloa, Dracunculus medinensis, mite infection of the lungs (including at least some cases of tropical eosinophilia), and hydrated disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus are all common causes of blood eos Eosinophilia infiltrates tissues where an antigen-antibody response has occurred in significant numbers. They appear to be drawn to some antigen-antibody reaction product, as evidenced by the fact that when tissues from sensitised guinea pigs mixed with antigen in vitro, or tissues from guinea pigs who have died from anaphylaxis, are transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of normal guinea pigs, the recipient develops severe eosinophilia within 24 hours. Although the active agent has not been infected, it is unlikely that it is histamine. Rodent eosinophils are particularly active phagocytic, ingesting cellular debris, mast cell granules, and other detritus, but it’s unclear whether this is true of eosinophils from other species, or what role eosinophils play in these reactions. In parasite infection, a variety of defence systems are activated. When parasites enter the bloodstream (Malaria, Trypanosoma), a humoral response emerges, but parasites that grow within the tissues elicit cell-mediated immunity (Eg: Cutaneous leishmaniasis). B cells, memory cells, and antibodies all play a role in humoral immunity. IgG and IgM are produced in protozoal infections. In addition, IgA is created during an infection of the intestine. IgG, IgM, and IgE antibodies are generated in response to helminthic infections.

Author (S) Details

M. V. R. Rao
Research Laboratory, Apollo institute of Medical Sciences and Research, India.

M. Khaleel
Department of Microbiology, Owaisi Hospital & Research Canter, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, India.

V. K. Chennamchetty
Department of Pulmonology, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, India.

S. Rao
Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, India.

A. Khan
American University School of Medicine Aruba, Caribbean Islands, India.

T. Calvo
American University School of Medicine Aruba, Caribbean Islands, India.

A. M. Nisanth
NRI Medical College, Dr. NTR University Health Sciences, India.

R. Kudari
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Hindu College of Pharmacy, India.

Dilip Mathai
Department of Medicine, Dean, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, India.

M. K. Verma
American University School of Medicine Aruba, Caribbean Islands, India.

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