Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf (DC) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-induced Dyslipidemia: Current Knowledge
Introduction: Diabetic dyslipidemia (DD) is a collection of quantitative, qualitative and kinetic lipid abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus that together caused the lipid profile to become more atherogenic. It consists of elevated serum concentration of triglyceride-cholesterol (TG-C), a high serum level of small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sd LDL-C), low level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and normal to slightly elevated level of total low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C).
Aims: Diabetic dyslipidemia is a recognized risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Plant medicinal agents such as Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus) have shown potential as alternative therapies for reducing cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C. citratus leaf extract on the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in diabetic dyslipidemic rats (n=35).
Materials and Methods: A C. citratus extract was prepared by ethanol extraction of leaf material. Rats were divided into seven groups (n=5) as follows: (a) Normal diet control, (b) Hyperlipidemic diet (HLD) control, (c) HLD + 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) control (d) HLD + STZ + 250mg/kg C. citratusextract (CCE), (e) HLD + STZ + 500mg/kg CCE, (f) HLD + STZ + 1000mg/kg CCE, and (g) HLD + STZ + 5mg/kg atorvastatin + 600μg/g glibenclamide. Animals were treated with HLD for 14 days and then injected intraperitoneally with 65mg/kg STZ. Confirmed diabetic dyslipidemic animals were treated intragastrically with CCE at doses of 250, 500, and 1000mg/kg, with 5mg/kg atorvastatin, and with 600μg/g glibenclamide for 30 days.
Results: The extract, which tested positive for tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, etc. lowered fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and dose-dependently decreased the serum levels of T-chol, LDL, VLDL, and β-HMG-CoA reductase, while simultaneously increasing HDL levels. The AIP was lowered in a dose-dependent manner by 33, 43.7, and 52.4% in groups treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg of CCE respectively.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the C. citrates extract had an ameliorative effect on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and atherogenic index of plasma.
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