Research: – 1
Foreign Aid Initiatives and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Perspectives on Country Ownership and Humanistic Care
With a prevalence rate of 3.1%, Nigeria has a generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic. Like much other developing countries, Nigeria has to collaborate with development partners to fight the HIV/AIDS scourge. This review assesses the impact of foreign aid initiatives on the fight against HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It examines Nigeria’s capacity and willingness to independently own a sustainable provision of HIV/AIDS care in the country. This paper assesses the outcomes of the HIV/AIDS scheme. Our review indicates that foreign aid initiatives were responsible for the rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS services and improvement in morbidity and mortality rates. While foreign aids have contributed to the reversal of both prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, donor-funded initiatives have overstretched the workforce and the health systems thus diverting healthcare emphases towards specific disease intervention programmes. Evaluation of outcomes measures has consistently excluded viral load assessment, antiretroviral resistant testing and the provision of a salvage regimen. Nigeria’s budgetary allocation to the health sector is still very low, consequently, government willingness and commitment to the fight against HIV/AIDS is grossly inadequate. The HIV/AIDS programme is still donors dependent and often seen as “donor-agency things”. The global aid initiatives have recorded a milestone achievement in the fight against HIV infections in Nigeria. While much is needed from the donor agencies, Nigeria must ensure deliberate commitment towards an independent ownership of HIV/AIDS scheme in Nigeria.
Research: – 2
Awareness of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Including HIV/AIDS among Undergraduate Students of University of Abuja, Nigeria
Aims: To assess knowledge of students of the University of Abuja about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS by determining their knowledge about the types, routes of transmission and symptoms of STIs including HIV/AIDS and the preventive measures available.
Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study of non-medical undergraduate students.
Place and Duration of Study: University of Abuja, Nigeria. Between September 2012 and February 2013.
Methodology: Stratified random sampling method was used in the administration of a detailed semi-structured questionnaire which identified socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of STIs including HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, symptoms and preventive measures. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics as well as cross-tabulation of some of the variables.
Results: Knowledge about STIs (87.4%) and HIV/AIDS (91%) was relatively high; most known types of STIs were gonorrhea (89.3%) and syphilis (81.2%). Television was the highest source of knowledge (82%), the school education (81.5%). Knowledge of routes of transmission was varied with sexual intercourse (93%), blood transfusion (90.7%) and sharing sharp objects (83.7%) having the highest values. 23.6% of the respondents had the misconception that STIs and HIV/AIDS can be transmitted through sharing toilets, eating utensils, witchcraft and kisses. Knowledge about symptoms of HIV/AIDS were shared but more respondents chose weight loss (84.3%), fever off and on (74.4%) and itchy skin rash (68.3%); there was varied knowledge of preventive measures with condom use (88.2%), abstinence (86.2%) and faithfulness to one uninfected partner (79.8%) having higher values.
Conclusion: The students’ knowledge about STIs and HIV/AIDS was high with some misconception about the routes of transmission. There should be incorporation of STIs and HIV/AIDS education in the University curriculum by making it part of the General Studies courses in the universities in Nigeria.
Research: – 3
Sexual Risk Behaviour and Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Male Prison Inmates in Kaduna State, North Western Nigeria
Background: The average numbers of Nigerians who have been incarcerated over the past three decades when HIV/AIDS was discovered have been increasing and the seroprevalence of HIV/AIDS amongst the prison inmates remained higher than the national average due to the occurrence of risky sexual practices among inmates and inadequate HIV prevention, care and support services. This study assessed the sexual risk behaviour and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among inmates in Kaduna State, north western Nigeria.
Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study with qualitative method of data collection (focus group discussion) was conducted on 107 inmates aged 20 to 55 years in Kaduna State Prisons Command between September 8th and October 2nd 2010. Information elicited were transcribed and translated where appropriate and presented as tables and in narrative forms with relevant quotations.
Results: The mean average age of the respondents was 34(±8.62) years. The general awareness and knowledge of causative agent of HIV infection was high (96.3% and 67.3% respectively). However, some have misconceptions of witchcraft (9.3%), enemies (11.2%), bacteria (12.1%) and mosquitoes’ bite (15.9%) as the causative agent/ mode of transmission of HIV infection. 99.5% acknowledged that HIV/AIDS and risky sexual practices occurred in prison but denied taking part. Sex in prison was often associated with homosexual behavior among the males but participants were pessimistic about condom distribution due to fear of promotion of homosexuality (65.4%) and non compliance with religion (34.6%).
Conclusion: Despite high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among inmates, there are still misconceptions. Homosexual practices associated with HIV/AIDS transmission is practiced among the male inmates; however, the use of condom which is one of the evidence based strategies for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS is met with a high degree of resistance by inmates. Therefore, there is need for implementation of HIV/AIDS interpersonal communication and counseling programmes for the inmates in Nigeria prisons.
Research: – 4
Assessing Health Education Techniques in Enhancing the Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Adolescents
Introduction: Adolescent refers to individuals between the ages of 10-19 years. In Nepal, Adolescent comprises more than 22% of the population. Educations are important as a ‘social vaccine’, and it can serve as a powerful preventive tool.
Methods: The study was conducted on three secondary school of in Hansapur Village Development Committees, Arghakhanchi district. The sampling design used for the study was stratiï¬ed random sampling. A sample size of 300 adolescent students was taken.
Results: Mean pre-intervention knowledge scores were 57.36±17.44 for pre-intervention groups. After health education by the five methods in the five subgroups, the pooled mean knowledge score was enhanced to 81.80±16.47. It was highly significant (p<0.001). The overall increase in Post-intervention mean score in the intervention group (From Pre-intervention to Post-intervention) was 20.32 percent. The corresponding pre-intervention mean scores were 10.98±5.04, 12.06+6.01, 12.35±5.68, 10.98±4.99, and 10.98±4.99 respectively. Immediately after the educational activities, the mean knowledge scores (Post-intervention score) enhanced to 13.13±4.96, 14.93±5.96, 16.16±6.25, 19.36±5.50, 18.20±7.16 in the book, lecture, poster pamphlets, video and participatory lecture groups respectively. It was highly significant for all the five intervention subgroups.
Conclusion: Video and the participatory lecture are the most effective health education techniques for effective delivery of HIV/AIDS. It is suggested that programme implementers might chose the suitable methods required for their individual programmes.
Research: – 5
THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF CROSS-GENERATIONAL SEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS ON THE HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC IN BOTSWANA
This paper reviews the literature on cross-generational/intergenerational sexual relationships in sub-Sahara Africa. A review of the discussion of the dangers of cross-generational sexual relationships between adolescent girls and older men, which are believed to contribute to the spread of HIV infection across generations, is made. Then an overview of the global HIV/AIDS situation, a brief summary on the HIV/AIDS situation in sub-Saharan Africa, and the HIV/AIDS situation in Botswana are given. The overview indicates that even though the infection rate is declining, the HIV/AIDS situation is still very serious. What comes out is that biological and anatomical factors, cultural factors and economic factors increase women’s and girls’ vulnerability to HIV infection. The research studies that are reviewed indicate that intergenerational sex relationships between girls and young women and older men pose a serious danger with regard to the spread of HIV/AIDS globally, regionally and in Botswana. Behaviour change communication programmes that are aimed at making people aware of the need to change their sexual habits should be mounted and the existing ones strengthened.