Editor Papa Research May 30, 2019

Social Epidemiology

Social medicine may be a study that explores the social factors or social phenomena that impact population health. It incorporates the ideas and strategies of population health. This chapter focuses on social medicine as a look technique within the context of population health. the numerous role of social medicine in examining the influence of social determinants on the health of people and teams is stressed. Concepts, theories, and strategies of social medical specialty analysis square measure explored to explicate the influence of advanced social factors on the health of populations. The implications for analysis and translation of proof of social medicine into observe, curriculum, and policy development square measure mentioned. [1]

Meeting Individual Social Needs Falls Short Of Addressing Social Determinants Of Health

Until recently, efforts to enhance the health of usa citizens have centered on increasing access to quality medical aid. however there’s a growing recognition that medical aid alone cannot address what truly makes U.S.A. sick. Increasing health care prices and worsening anticipation square measure the results of a worn social safety internet, economic and housing instability, racism and different sorts of discrimination, academic disparities, inadequate nutrition, and risks among the physical atmosphere. These factors have an effect on our health long before the health care system ever gets concerned.Hospitals and health care systems have began to address these social determinants of health through initiatives that purchase, supply temporary housing, or cowl transportation prices for insecure patients. The prevalence and initial success of those efforts square measure clear in headlines such as: “What Montefiore’s three hundredth ROI from Social Determinants Investments means that for the long run of different Hospitals,” “Social Determinants of Health Gain Traction as UnitedHealthcare and Intermountain Build New Programs,” and “How Addressing Social Determinants of Health Cuts aid prices.” however after you take a more in-depth look, these articles aren’t regarding up the underlying social and economic conditions in communities to foster improved health for all – they’re regarding mediating patients’ individual social wants. If this is often what addressing the social determinants of health has return to mean, not solely has the definition modified, however it’s modified in ways in which could impede efforts to handle those conditions that impact the general health of our country. [2]

Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities Among Immigrants and their Children

In 2017, the us (U.S.) nonnative population was calculable to be forty four.5 million, the very best share since 1910. it’s unclear what number unregistered immigrants board the U.S., however estimates in 2014 determined that there have been a minimum of twelve.1 million. The migrant population, notably unregistered immigrants, has systematically been affected negatively by social determinants of health like poorness, food and housing insecurity, lack of instructional attainment, and challenges with health care access. to boot, they face stigma and marginalisation, difficulties with acculturation, and fearof deportation. Given these challenges that immigrants and their kids face, physicians have a responsibility of assessing these social determinants of health and providing comprehensive look after this population. [3]

The role of social determinants in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in perinatal outcomes

In the u.  s., there still be vital racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth (PTB) rates, infant mortality rate, and foetal mortality rates. One potential treater of those disparities is social determinants of health, together with individual socioeconomic factors; community factors like crime, poverty, housing, and also the racial/ethnic makeup of the community; and also the physical atmosphere. Previous work has known statistically vital associations between every of those factors and adverse gestation outcomes. However, there square measure recent studies that offer new, innovative insights into this subject, together with adding social determinant knowledge to population-based datasets; exploring multiple constructs in their analysis; and examining environmental factors. the target of this review are going to be to look at this recent analysis on the association of every of those sets of social determinants on racial/ethnic disparities PTB, infant mortality rate, and foetal mortality to spotlight potential areas for targeted intervention to cut back these variations. [4]

Factors Associated with Inconsisitent Female Condom Use among Sexually Active Young Persons in Western Nigeria

Background: feminine condoms square measure devices used throughout sexual activity as a barrier contraceptive to scale back the danger sexually transmitted infections (STIs) like HIV, Cupid’s disease and pox. Consistent and acceptable use of birth control device is that the handiest manner of preventing HIV/AIDS transmission and unwanted pregnancies. Hypothesis tested was the influence of instructional standing on feminine birth control device & HIV/AIDS information. This study was aimed toward determinant the information, attitudes, experiences and factors related to the inconsistent and incorrect use of feminine birth control device among sexually active young persons in Western African nation.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was administrated in Ogun State & Ekiti State, Western African nation. The target population was sexually active young persons between ages fifteen to forty years, including individuals living with HIV/AIDS and feminine sex employees.  A multi-stage sampling technique was accustomed choose 360 respondents WHO were administered a well-structured pre-tested form. All knowledge were statistically analyzed, mistreatment applied math Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) whereas applied math check of significance was performed mistreatment Chi-Square check.

Results: a complete of 360 (37 males & 323 females) respondents participated within the study. Most of them were within the age vary of 21- twenty five years, with the mean age ± SD of twenty-two.94 ± 3.78 years. 24.7% of them acumen to use feminine birth control device however solely twelve.8% of them have ever used feminine birth control device as against thirty eight.1% that have ever used male birth control device. Only 4.2% respondents square measure HIV positive, as 50.3% of the respondents most popular male birth control device chiefly thanks to accessibility, affordability and easier use.

Conclusion: The information regarding feminine birth control device during this study was average whereas the attitudes towards its use weren’t favourable chiefly thanks to the preference for male birth control device as a results of complaints regarding feminine condoms as well as inaccessibility, higher value and insertion problem. Thus, there’s ought to extensively educate the complete world particularly ladies relating to the misconceptions and social stigma regarding feminine birth control device so as to spice up its use. [5]

Reference

[1] Zha, P., 2019. Social Epidemiology. In Social Pathways to Health Vulnerability (pp. 159-180). Springer, Cham. (Web Link)

[2] Castrucci, B. and Auerbach, J., 2019. Meeting individual social needs falls short of addressing social determinants of health. Health Affairs Blog. (Web Link)

[3] Chang, C.D., 2019. Social determinants of health and health disparities among immigrants and their children. Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care49(1), pp.23-30. (Web Link)

[4] The role of social determinants in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in perinatal outcomes

Scott A. LorchElizabeth Enlow

Pediatric Research volume79, pages141–147 (2016) (Web Link)

[5] Nafisat Usman, I., Adesina, A., Opeyemi Usman, S., Tshuma, N., Peter Olubayo, G., John Fatunmbi, O., Sunday Odesanmi, O., Christopher Omisakin, T., Olowoyeye, A., & Fatai Adebayo, K. (2017). Factors Associated with Inconsisitent Female Condom Use among Sexually Active Young Persons in Western Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences1(3), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.9734/AJRIMPS/2017/36533 (Web Link)

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