Editor Papa Research July 9, 2019

Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae)

Unripe fruit, seeds and aerial elements of gourd Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) are utilized in varied elements of the planet to treat polygenic disease. Oral administration of the fruit crush or seed powder causes a discount in abstinence aldohexose|blood sugar|glucose} and improves glucose tolerance in traditional and diabetic animals and in humans. Animal and in vitro knowledge support each endocrine secretagogue and insulinomimetic activity of the fruit. However, increased endocrine levels in vivo in response to its administration haven’t been ascertained. though a large vary of compounds are isolated from gourd, notably steroidal  compounds and proteins, the orally active medicine principle has not been adequately known. A peptide, p-insulin, produces hypoglycemic effects in humans and animals on injection, however oral activity is questionable. alternative rumored hypoglycemic principles from gourd embody the steroid alcohol glycoside mixture charantin (fruit) and also the pyrimidine glycoside vicine (seeds). but these area unit solely effective at doses too high to account for all the activity of the plant extract. Principal toxicity of gourd in animals is to the liver and genital system. These effects haven’t been rumored in humans despite widespread use of the fruit medicinally and as a vegetable. [1]

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): A review of efficacy and safety

The medicine, clinical effectualness, adverse effects, drug interactions, and place in medical aid of bitter melon are delineated .

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an alternate medical aid that has primarily been used for lowering blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes. parts of bitter melon extract seem to own structural similarities to animal hypoglycaemic agent. Antiviral and antineoplastic activities have conjointly been rumored in vitro. Four clinical trials found bitter melon juice, fruit, and dried powder to own a moderate symptom impact. These studies were tiny and weren’t randomised or double-blind, however. rumored adverse effects of bitter melon embrace symptom coma and convulsions in kids, reduced fertility in mice, a favism-like syndrome, will increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkalic enzyme levels in animals, and headaches.

Bitter melon might have additive effects once infatuated alternative glucose-lowering agents. Adequately supercharged, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are required to properly assess safety and effectualness before bitter melon is habitually counseled. Bitter melon might have symptom effects, however knowledge aren’t decent to advocate its use within the absence of careful management and watching. [2]

Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (karela).

The impact of karela (Momordica charantia), a fruit autochthonal to South America and Asia, on aldohexose and hypoglycaemic agent concentrations was studied in 9 non-insulin-dependent diabetics and 6 non-diabetic laboratory rats. A soluble extract of the fruits considerably reduced {blood aldohexose|blood sugar|glucose} concentrations throughout a fifty g oral glucose tolerance take a look at within the diabetics and when force-feeding within the rats. cooked karela fruits consumed as a daily supplement to the diet made atiny low however vital improvement in aldohexose tolerance. Improvement in aldohexose tolerance wasn’t related to a rise in liquid body substance hypoglycaemic agent responses. These results show that karela improves aldohexose tolerance in polygenic disorder. Doctors supervision Asian diabetics ought to bear in mind of the fruit’s hypoglycemic properties. [3]

BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

Momordica charantia could be a perennial plant with according health edges. BG-4, a unique amide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, refined and characterised. The enzyme repressing activity of BG-4 is eight.6 times on top of refined soybean enzyme substance. The high enzyme repressing activity of BG-4 could also be accountable for its capability to cause toxicity to HCT-116 and HT-29 human carcinoma cells with ED50 values of 134.4 and 217.0 μg/mL when 48 h of treatment, severally. The mechanism concerned within the cytotoxic impact could also be related to induction of caspase-mediated cell death as proved  by enhanced share of HCT-116 and HT-29 carcinoma cells undergoing caspase-mediated cell death from five.4% (untreated) to twenty four.8% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h) and eight.5% (untreated) to thirty one.9% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h), severally. The molecular mechanistic rationalization within the caspase-mediated cell death causation property of BG-4 is thanks to reduced expression of Bcl-2 and enhanced expression of Bax resulting in enhanced expression of caspase-3 and moving the expression of cell cycle proteins p21 and CDK2. this can be the primary report on the anti-cancer potential of a unique bioactive amide isolated from Momordica charantia in vitro supporting the potential therapeutic property of BG-4 against carcinoma that has got to be self-addressed victimization in vivo models of colon carcinogenesis. [4]

Phytochemical, Acute Toxicity, Analgesic, in vitro Antioxidant Studies and GC-MS Investigation of Essential Oil of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Momordica charantia

Medicinal plants have bioactive compounds that play a crucial role within the healing of assorted diseases. they’re the most effective sources for chemical ingredients, antimicrobial and inhibitor agents for cure of various diseases. Most medicative plants possess pharmacologic activities (anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic drug, inhibitor, bactericide, antifungal etc.) thanks to the presence of those phytochemicals in them. during this study, we tend to will conduct qualitative phytochemical screening and to quantitatively assess the full phenol, flavonols, tannins, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents of the plant, Mormodica charantia. The acute toxicity studies of the alcohol leaf extract of M. charantia on mice was conducted to judge however safe the plant is in respect to indefinite quantity, and this can be supposed to ascertain the security of the plant in mice with relation to OECD pointers. moreover, the analgesic activity of the alcohol leaf extract of M. charantia and therefore the radical scavenging activities of the plant in vitro were incontestable  exploitation numerous normal procedures. we tend to conjointly will profile the foremost compounds gift within the oil of the plant understudied exploitation Gas Chromatography-Mass qualitative analysis Analysis. Summarily, this study was aimed to research the phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, analgesic, in vitro inhibitor, moreover because the chemical constituents within the oil of the alcohol leaf extract of M. charantia. [5]

Reference

[1] Raman, A. and Lau, C., 1996. Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L.(Cucurbitaceae). Phytomedicine, 2(4), pp.349-362. (Web Link)

[2] Basch, E., Gabardi, S. and Ulbricht, C., 2003. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 60(4), pp.356-359. (Web Link)

[3] Leatherdale, B.A., Panesar, R.K., Singh, G., Atkins, T.W., Bailey, C.J. and Bignell, A.H., 1981. Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (karela). Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 282(6279), pp.1823-1824. (Web Link)

[4] BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

Vermont P. Dia & Hari B. Krishnan

Scientific Reports volume 6, Article number: 33532 (2016) (Web Link)

[5] O. Ofuegbe, S., S. Akinrinde, A., A. Oyagbemi, A., O. Omobowale, T., A. Yakubu, M. and A. Adedapo, A. (2017) “Phytochemical, Acute Toxicity, Analgesic, in vitro Antioxidant Studies and GC-MS Investigation of Essential Oil of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Momordica charantia”, Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, 4(2), pp. 1-18. doi: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/37049. (Web Link)

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