Editor Papa Research July 6, 2019

The Distinction between Grain Size and Mineral Composition in Sedimentary-Rock Nomenclature

A system of grain-size terminology of terrigenous sediments and matter rocks is introduced whereby fifteen major textural teams square measure outlined on the ratios of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. any subdivision of every category is predicated on the median diameter of every size fraction gift. Next, the mineral composition of terrigenous matter rocks is taken into account. A triangular diagram is employed to outline eight rock varieties (orthoquartzite, arkose, graywacke, and 5 shift types) supported the geology of the silt-sand-gravel fraction and ignoring clay content. the author contends that the present apply of business all clayey sandstones “graywackes” isn’t valid, inasmuch because it represents a confusion of texture with composition. it’s recommended that matter rocks could also be best outlined by the employment of a three-party name, supported the subsequent pattern-(grain size): (textural maturity) (mineral composition). [1]

Mineral composition and ash content of six major energy crops

The chemical composition of biofuels has not received adequate attention only if it’s a crucial side within the introduction of energy crops. during this study, the ash content and mineral composition (C, N, Al, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Si) of stems, leaves and fruitful organs of some promising energy crops were determined and compared with the several counseled thresholds rumored in literature. Overall, genus Cynara exhibited the very best ash and mineral contents, that indicate high slagging, fouling and corrosion tendencies. However, genus Cynara conjointly showed all-time low Si content, each in leaves (4.3 g kg−1) and in stems (0.9 g kg−1).

Sweet sorghum and Arundo donax exhibited the very best N content (up to sixteen g kg−1), that greatly exceeded the counseled limits in leaves. significantly, Cl forever exceeded the counseled limits (up to eighteen mg kg−1 in cynara), each in stems and in leaves, so leading to a significant obstacle for all crops. many important correlations among parts were found at one plant part; conversely these correlations were typically terribly weak considering totally different plant parts, with the exception of K (r=0.91**), P (r=0.94**) and ashes (r=0.64**). Generally, leaves resulted in a very important deterioration of biofuel quality compared with stems and flower heads. Therefore, agricultural ways geared toward reducing the leaf part (e.g. by delaying the harvest) could significantly improve the suitableness of biofuels for current combustion plants. [2]

Leaf carbon isotope and mineral composition in subtropical plants along an irradiance cline

Leaf carbon atom ratios and leaf mineral composition (Ca, K, Mg, Mn, N, ANd P) were measured on the dominant species on an irradiance geneticist in a very climatic zone monsoon forest of southern China. This irradiance geneticist resulted from disturbance caused by fuel-harvesting. Leaf carbon atom ratios increased  from undisturbed to disturbed sites for all species, indicating that leaf animate thing CO2 concentrations slashed and leaf water use efficiencies increased  on this geneticist. N and atomic number 12 levels were lower in leaves of species on the disturbed sites, however there have been no clear patterns for atomic number 20, potassium, phosphorus or atomic number 25. [3]

A new perspective on the 137Cs retention mechanism in surface soils during the early stage after the Fukushima nuclear accident

The Fukushima Daiichi atomic energy plant accident caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of the soil in multiple terrestrial ecosystems. Soil may be a complicated system wherever minerals, organic matter, and microorganisms act with every other; so, associate degree improved understanding of the interactions of 137Cs with these soil constituents is vital to accurately assessing the environmental consequences of the accident. Soil samples were collected from field, orchard, and forest sites in Gregorian calendar month 2011, separated into 3 soil fractions with totally different mineral–organic interaction characteristics employing a density fractionation technique, so analyzed for 137Cs content, mineral composition, and organic matter content. The results show that 20–71% of the 137Cs was preserved in association with comparatively mineral-free, particulate organic matter (POM)-dominant fractions within the garden and forest soil layers. Given the chemistry and mineralogical properties and also the 137Cs extractability of the soils, 137Cs incorporation into the complicated structure of pommy is probably going the most mechanism for 137Cs retention within the soil layers. Therefore, our results counsel that a major fraction of 137Cs isn’t like a shot immobilized by clay minerals and remains probably mobile and bioavailable in surface layers of organic-rich soils. [4]

Study of Chemical and Mineral Composition of New Sour Milk Bio-product with Sapropel Powder

In this paper the results of chemical and mineral composition of recent bitter milk bio-product with gook powder are conferred. gook in powder kind other to the formulation of bitter milk of one.5% of total mass. gook is characterised by high % of mineral components concentration (50.97%), significantly it’s made in atomic number 25 316.0 mg/kg, Ca 148.0 mg/kg (in the shape of Ca carbonate), zinc 59.7 mg/kg, copper 24.1 mg/kg. In new bitter milk bio-product the supermolecule content was considerably higher (20.95%) than au fait sample (18.40%) with decreasing of wetness content to seventy six.0-76.3% than au fait sample seventy nine.50%. Addition of one.5% of plant gook will increase the nutritious price of ultimate product up to fifteen.3 kcal or sixteen.4% attributable to high content of supermolecule and fat. [5]


[1] Folk, R.L., 1954. The distinction between grain size and mineral composition in sedimentary-rock nomenclature. The Journal of Geology, 62(4), pp.344-359. (Web Link)

[2] Monti, A., Di Virgilio, N. and Venturi, G., 2008. Mineral composition and ash content of six major energy crops. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32(3), pp.216-223. (Web Link)

[3] Ehleringer, J.R., Field, C.B., Lin, Z.F. and Kuo, C.Y., 1986. Leaf carbon isotope and mineral composition in subtropical plants along an irradiance cline. Oecologia, 70(4), pp.520-526. (Web Link)

[4] A new perspective on the 137Cs retention mechanism in surface soils during the early stage after the Fukushima nuclear accident

Jun Koarashi, Syusaku Nishimura, Mariko Atarashi-Andoh, Kotomi Muto & Takeshi Matsunaga

Scientific Reportsvolume 9, Article number: 7034 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Gorelik, O., Shatskikh, Y., Rebezov, M., Kanareikina, S., Kanareikin, V., Lihodeyevskaya, O., Andrushechkina, N., Harlap, S., Temerbayeva, M., Dolmatova, I. and Okuskhanova, E. (2017) “Study of Chemical and Mineral Composition of New Sour Milk Bio-product with Sapropel Powder”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 18(4), pp. 1-5. doi: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36937. (Web Link)

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