Protective role of Spirulina platensis against UVA-induced haemato-biochemical and cellular alterations in Clarias gariepinus
Recently, it’s become well known that ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure is harmful for each aquatic and terrestrial organisms. several studies have rumored the results of UVA on aquatic animals, particularly fish, however very little is thought regarding the inhibitor role of microalgae in amelioratory the negative effects of UVA exposure. Recently, there has been nice interest in victimisation Spirulina platensis (SP) as a dietary inhibitor agent. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the protecting role of SP against UVA-induced effects by analysing haemato-biochemical alterations and red blood cell cytotoxic and genotoxic biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to UVA, UVA + 100 mg/L SP extract, UVA + 200 mg/L SP extract for 3 days (UVA exposure: 1 h/day), and weren’t subjected to treatment (control group). The results showed the presence of some morphological malformations in red blood cells (RBCs) once UVA exposure. to boot, nuclear abnormalities, as well as micronuclei, were ascertained. UVA iatrogenic alterations in most of the haemato-biochemical indices. Adding SP to the fish aquaria remodeled the haemato-biochemical parameters to their management values. additionally, SP repaired cellular harm during a dose-dependent manner. we tend to conclude that SP plays a modulatory role in preventing and/or repairing the haemotoxic effects iatrogenic by UVA. 
Antioxidant activities of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against pendimethalin-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)
To assess the meliorative effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf extract on medical specialty and organic chemistry changes, liver polymer harm and aerobic stress biomarkers in river genus Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.52 mg/l) of pendimethalin (PM). genus Tilapia fish were allotted into four equal teams in tri-replicates as follows: initial cluster was the management group, second cluster was treated with MO (20 ml/30 l water), third cluster was exposed to zero.52 mg PM/l and fourth cluster was exposed to zero.52 mg PM/l and treated with MO leaf extract (20 ml/30 l water) for twenty eight days. At the top of this era, blood and liver tissue samples were collected and medical specialty and organic chemistry changes, internal organ polymer fragmentation and aerobic stress biomarkers were analysed. Pendimethalin caused important reduction in medical specialty profile [White blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Ht) level]; in the meantime, body fluid aspartate transaminase (AST), aminoalkanoic acid transaminase (ALT), alkalic enzyme (ALP), creatinine, uric acid, glucose, cortisol, sterol and bottle-feed dehydrogenase (LDH) were considerably redoubled. On the opposite hand, body fluid total supermolecule, albumin, simple protein and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were attenuate. important reduction in internal organ enzyme (SOD), enzyme (CAT), total inhibitor capability (TAC) and antioxidant (GSH-Px) levels and marked increments of internal organ malondialdehyde (MDA) and polymer fragmentation were ascertained in PM-exposed fish compared to the management cluster. The addition of Moringa oleifera leaf extract into the water may overcome the negative impacts of pendimethalin and normalise the examined parameters nearly to the management values. Moringa oleifera was used for the primary time to guard genus Tilapia fish against PM-induced toxicity. this study disclosed that Moringa oleifera has potent inhibitor and antigenotoxic actions against pendimethalin toxicity. 
Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibition on the Aldosterone/Renin Ratio in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
The mineralocorticoid to peptidase quantitative relation (ARR) is suggested for case detection of primary gland disease (PA). many factors as well as medications will undermine its diagnostic accuracy. the target was to explore the result of atomic number 11 aldohexose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibition on the ARR in patients with sort a pair of DM (T2DM) WHO were prescribed a atomic number 11 aldohexose Co-Transporter-2 substance (SGLT-2i) as a part of routine clinical care. the first outcomes were intra-individual changes in mineralocorticoid, peptidase and ARR. Participants were recruited at routine polygenic disease patient visits as a part of a prospective longitudinal study. Eligible participants were prescribed commonplace doses of empagliflozin and sampled at baseline (pre-SGLT-2i) and at their next routine patient visit (post-SGLT-2i). when a mean of 198 (±87) days on SGLT-2i treatment (n=20), there was a big reduction in HbA1c, BMI, eGFR and body fluid triglycerides and a big increase in serum creatinine and atomic number 11. Compared with baseline, there was a big increase in median direct peptidase concentration (mIU/l) [40.3 (6.2–249.5) vs. 70.2 (7.0, 551.0) (p=0.005)] and no vital modification in median plasma mineralocorticoid concentration (pmol/l) [296 (101, 685) vs. 273 (101, 794) (p=0.541)] with a big reduction in median ARR (pmol/mIU) [6.9 (0.6–70.7) vs. 5.3 (0.2–39.3) (p=0.007)]. The proportion of participants with a screen positive ARR decreased from twentieth (pre-SGLT-2i) to five (post-SGLT-2i) (p=0.248). though performed during a comparatively tiny cohort of medically complicated patients, the study indicates that SGLT-2i medical care has the potential to cause false-negative screening for PA within the setting of T2DM. Future substantiative studies ought to embody patients with confirmed PA. 
The effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on routine haematological parameters in older people: an individual participant data meta-analysis
Low vitamin B and vitamin M levels in community-dwelling older folks are typically corrected with supplements. However, the impact of this supplementation on medical specialty parameters in older persons isn’t celebrated. Therefore, we have a tendency to dead a scientific review and individual participant knowledge meta-analysis of irregular placebo-controlled trials (RCTs).
We performed a scientific search in PubMed, EMBASE, internet of Science, Cochrane and CENTRAL for RCTs revealed between Jan 1950 and Gregorian calendar month 2016, wherever community-dwelling older (60+ years) World Health Organization were treated with vitamin B or vitamin M or placebo. The presence of anaemia wasn’t needed. we have a tendency to analysed the information on medical specialty parameters with a two-stage IPD meta-analysis.
We found 494 full papers covering fourteen studies. knowledge were shared by the authors of 4 RCTs scrutiny vitamin B with placebo (n = 343) and of 3 RCTs comparing vitamin M with placebo (n = 929). we have a tendency to found no impact of vitamin B supplementation on Hb (change zero.00 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.18), and no impact of vitamin M supplementation (change −0.09 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.01). the results of supplementation on alternative medical specialty parameters were similar. the results didn’t take issue by sex or
by age bracket. Also, no impact was found during a subgroup of patients with anaemia and a subgroup of patients World Health Organization were treated >4 weeks.
Evidence on the results of supplementation of low concentrations of vitamin B and vitamin M on medical specialty parameters in community-dwelling older folks is inconclusive. additional analysis is required before firm recommendations are often created regarding the supplementation of vitamin B and vitamin M. 
Effect of Carica papaya (L) Leaves on Haematological Parameters in Ccl4-induced Wistar Albino Rats
Aims: to analyze the result of papaya leaves on some hematological parameters (PCV, RBC, Hb, leucocyte and differential blood counts) were investigated.
Place and period of Study: Department of Medical organic chemistry, college of Basic Medical Sciences, school of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Bayelsa-State, Nigeria, between.
Methods: Thirty male anomaly rats were indiscriminately assigned to 5 teams of six rats per cluster. hemoprotein (Hb) was firm spectrophotometrically by the cyanomethaemoglobin methodology, Red blood cells (RBC), was calculable by haemocytometer, victimisation adopted operating procedure. Group1 (negative control) were fed with one thousandth rat feed. teams 2- four were pretreated with ten, thirty and fiftieth C. papaya L severally, whereas cluster five (normal control) received one thousandth rat feed. Rats in teams (1-4), were injected with CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg weight in zero.5 cubic centimeter olive oil) on the twenty ninth day whereas rats in cluster five weren’t administered with CCl4 (normal control).
Results: The results were statistically analyzed victimisation unidirectional analysis of variance (ANOVA). there have been important will increase (p≤ zero.05) within the levels of hemoglobin, PCV, RBC, lymphocytes and attenuated leucocyte and neutrophils in rats in cluster five (normal management) as against the negative control (group 1). Rats teams pretreated with ten, thirty and fiftieth papaya (groups two, three and four respectively), showed important accrued (p≤ zero.05) PCV, blood corpuscle and hemoglobin levels, compared with untreated rats (group 1). Rats that were administered with CCl4 solely (negative control), showed important will increase (p≤ zero.05) within the levels of leucocyte and neutrophils. However, incorporation of ten, thirty and fiftieth papaya in teams two, three and four severally, considerably attenuated the degree of leucocyte and neutrophils, compared with rats in untreated cluster one. Monocytes levels considerably accrued (p≤ zero.05) in rats pre-treated with thirtieth and fiftieth papaya (groups three and four respectively). While, there was zero level of basophils all told the teams.
Conclusion: papaya L, could so possess and confer organic process properties on rats pretreated teams as evident within the accrued levels of hemoglobin, PCV, blood corpuscle and lymphocytes. 
 Osman, A., Hamed, M. and Sayed, A., 2019. Protective role of Spirulina platensis against UVA-induced haemato-biochemical and cellular alterations in Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 191, pp.59-64. (Web Link)
 Hamed, H.S. and El-Sayed, Y.S., 2019. Antioxidant activities of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against pendimethalin-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fish physiology and biochemistry, 45(1), pp.71-82. (Web Link)
 Griffin, T.P., Islam, M.N., Blake, L., Bell, M., Griffin, M.D. and O’Shea, P.M., 2019. Effect of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibition on the aldosterone/renin ratio in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 51(02), pp.91-99. (Web Link)
 The effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on routine haematological parameters in older people: an individual participant data meta-analysis
Antonia FH Smelt, Jacobijn Gussekloo, Lynette W Bermingham, Elizabeth Allen, Alan D Dangour, Simone JPM Eussen, Bernard Favrat, Lisette CPGM De Groot, Frans J Kok, Timothy Kwok, Arduino A Mangoni, George Ntaios, Ondine Van De Rest, Eric Seal, Paul Vaucher, Petra Verhoef, Theo Stijnen & Wendy PJ Den Elzen
European Journal of Clinical Nutritionvolume 72, pages785–795 (2018) (Web Link)
 Sule, O. J., Abdu, A. R. and Kiridi, K. (2016) “Effect of Carica papaya (L) Leaves on Haematological Parameters in Ccl4-induced Wistar Albino Rats”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 16(3), pp. 1-6. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/13686. (Web Link)