Editor Papa Research June 28, 2019

A Generalized Production Frontier Approach for Estimating Determinants of Inefficiency in U.S. Dairy Farms

This article investigates farm-level potency of U.S. dairy farm farmers by estimating their technical and allocative potency. Technical unskillfulness is assumed to be composed of a settled element that’s a perform of some farm-specific characteristics and a random element. By doing this we tend to extend the random frontier methodology within which determinants of technicial unskillfulness ar expressly introduced within the model. Given the inputs, variations in potency of farms ar then explained by each settled and random parts of technical unskillfulness. The empirical results indicate that (a) levels of education of the farmer ar vital factors crucial technical unskillfulness and (b) massive farms ar a lot of economical (technically) than tiny and medium-sized farms. each technical and allocative unskillfulness ar found to decrease with increase within the level of education of the farmer. [1]

Econometric Estimation of Technical and Environmental Efficiency: An Application to Dutch Dairy Farms

In this article we tend to estimate the technical and environmental potency of a panel of Dutch farm farms. N surplus, arising from the appliance of excessive amounts of manure and chemical plant food, is treated as associate environmentally harmful input. A random translog production frontier is such to estimate the output-oriented technical potency. Environmental potency is calculable because the input-oriented technical efficiency of one input, the N surplus of every farm. The mean output-oriented technical potency is very high, 0.894, however the mean input-oriented environmental potency is merely zero.441. Intensive farm farms are each technically and environmentally a lot of economical than intensive farms. [2]

Incidence Rate of Clinical Mastitis on Canadian Dairy Farms

No nationwide studies of the incidence rate of clinical rubor (IRCM) are conducted in Canada. as a result of the IRCM and distribution of mastitis-causing microorganism could show substantial geographic variation, the first objective of this study was to work out regional pathogen-specific IRCM on Canadian farm farms. in addition, the association of pathogen-specific IRCM with bulk milk cell count (BMSCC) and barn sort were determined. In total, ten6 farm farms in one0 provinces of Canada participated within the study for a amount of 1 period of time. taking part producers recorded three,149 cases of clinical rubor. the foremost oftentimes isolated rubor pathogens were coccus aureus, E. coli, eubacteria uberis, and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Overall mean and median IRCM were twenty three.0 and 16.7 cases per a hundred cow-years within the selected  herds, severally, with a variety from zero.7 to 97.4 per herd. No association between BMSCC and overall IRCM was found, but E. coli and culture-negative IRCM were highest and staphylococcus. aureus IRCM was lowest in low and medium BMSCC herds. coccus aureus, Strep. uberis, and eubacteria dysgalactiae IRCM were lowest within the Western provinces. coccus aureus and Strep. dysgalactiae IRCM were highest in Québec. Cows in tie-stalls had higher incidences of staphylococcus. aureus, Strep. uberis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and alternative strep IRCM compared with those in free-stalls, whereas cows in free stalls had higher enterobacteria spp. and E. coli IRCM than those in tie-stall barns. the main target of rubor interference and management programs should dissent between regions and may be tailored to farms supported housing sort and BMSCC. [3]

When less means more on dairy farms

Vanishing profit margins in farming area unit aggravating pressure on the ever present, genetically elite, high-yielding Friesian Bos taurus. A radical modification in strategy is required — less-intensive agriculture and a discount in client wastage (see go.nature.com/bwichl) might quite atone for lost production.

The Holstein’s outstanding milk production (up to ten,000 litres a year) is related to poor condition, fertility and survival (see P. Dillon et al. eutherian Sci. 99, 141–158; 2006), and has welfare implications. Its giant sickness burden demands routine secretion and antibiotic treatment, despite issues regarding antimicrobial resistance. throughout one lactation, one cow will eat quite its own weight in cereals, a lot of of that is potential human food and is mature victimization polluting artificial plant food. [4]

Re-emergence of Bovine Brucellosis in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Urban Settings of Tanzania

Aims: Brucellosis infection was antecedently encountered all told stock farming systems in African country however rumored to say no below a pair of in granger dairy farm subsector thanks to the demanding calf-hood vaccination mistreatment S19 between 1979 and 1990. However, reports from the last decade indicated a rise of the infection within the granger dairy farm subsector. This prompted many researchers to conduct more studies in several urban settings to establish the unwellness and associated risk factors. This study aims to elucidate the magnitude of brucellosis in urban areas of Morogoro region and connected risk factors within the advent of no management intervention in situ. Presence of anti-brucella antibodies in dairy farm animals residing in urban areas could cause a threat to exploit customers within the cities as a big proportion of the milk is sold-out informally. Therefore, generating this info can inform policy to formulate possible intervention for dominant brucellosis in urban settings that obliquely can safeguard public health. [5]

Reference

[1] Kumbhakar, S.C., Ghosh, S. and McGuckin, J.T., 1991. A generalized production frontier approach for estimating determinants of inefficiency in US dairy farms. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 9(3), pp.279-286. (Web Link)

[2] Reinhard, S., Lovell, C.K. and Thijssen, G., 1999. Econometric estimation of technical and environmental efficiency: an application to Dutch dairy farms. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 81(1), pp.44-60. (Web Link)

[3] Riekerink, R.O., Barkema, H.W., Kelton, D.F. and Scholl, D.T., 2008. Incidence rate of clinical mastitis on Canadian dairy farms. Journal of dairy science, 91(4), pp.1366-1377. (Web Link)

[4] When less means more on dairy farms

Mark C. Eisler, Michael R. F. Lee & Graeme B. Martin

Nature volume 512, page 371 (28 August 2014) (Web Link)

[5] M. Shirima, G., E. Lyimo, B. and L. Kanuya, N. (2018) “Re-emergence of Bovine Brucellosis in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Urban Settings of Tanzania”, Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 17(2), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/JALSI/2018/40955. (Web Link)

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