Cold Press Black Seed Oil and Omega-3 and Its Beneficial Effects on Metabolic Function and Fatty Liver in Obese Model

Aim: A high amount of Thymoquinone (TQ), an antioxidant, is present in Nigella Sativa seeds. Therefore, we hypothesised that Nigella Sativa oil will boost obesity-induced hyperglycemia through the antioxidant properties of TQ, and decrease blood pressure and OX-LDL in obese mice. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of TQ and omega-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) on inflammation associated with obesity, resistance to insulin and the metabolic effects of browning of adipose tissue.
Methods: 3T3-L1 cells, fat adipocytes, were cultured to investigate the effects of TQ and omega-3 on WAT browning. For 20 weeks, C57B16 male mice were fed a high fat diet (HF) beginning at eight weeks of age. Mice were divided into four treatment groups of five animals, each according to the following: group 1) Lean, group 2) HF diet, group 3) HF diet treated with 3% TQ for the last 8 weeks, and group 4) with 3% omega-3. Blood biomarkers, antioxidant biomarkers, mitochondrial activity and accumulation of tissue fat have been measured.
Results: Increased energy-dependent genes and oxygen consumption resulted in 3 percent TQ treatment (P<0.05). Compared to CA gasoline, TQ lowered fasting glucose and blood pressure (P<0.05) levels. TQ increased hepatic HO-1, mitochondrial Mfn2, PGC1aa, phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and decreased OX-LDL (P<0.05) and haptic apoptosis levels. The size of lipid droplets and increased hallmarks of beige adipocyte proteins such as UCP1, PRDM16, FGF21, Sirt1, Mfn2 and HO-1 protein expression, as well as elevated insulin receptors, were reduced by fat adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells, TQ and omega-3. Treatment with TQ and omega-3 in the adipose tissue of HFD mice attenuated levels of inflammatory adipokines, beige adipocyte hallmarks and mitochondrial biogenesis markers. TQ and omega-3 have also increased inflammation and insulin sensitivity in the liver and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes in addition to adipose. Our data show that TQ therapy in combination with omega-3 can play an important role in reducing the fatty liver associated with obesity, insulin resistance and the chronic inflammatory condition of obesity.

Author (s) Details

Maria Licari
Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Marco Raffaele
Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Lars Bellner
Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA.

Luca Vanella
Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Rita Rezzani
Anatomy and Physiopathology Division, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Francesca Bonomini
Anatomy and Physiopathology Division, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Hsin Hsueh Shen
Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Stephen J. Peterson
Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA and New York Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, NY 11215, USA.

Nader G. Abraham
Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA.

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